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Waste Market Overview & Outlook 2012

The Waste Market Overview examines the industry top to bottom covering waste generation, collection, processing, recovery and disposal by revenue and volume. The report details the relationship of past and future pricing to capacity and demand for disposal, and shows the increasing role of the private sector. Waste equipment and the emerging importance of e-waste, C&D recovery, food wastes, tires and medical wastes are examined.

  • Market Revenues by Segment

  • Waste Generation, Recovery and Disposal by Volume and Revenue

  • Collection, Processing and Disposal Markets

  • Geographic Distribution of the Market

  • Other Waste Management Segments & Emerging Markets

  • Competition in Waste Among the Major Players

  • Resource Recovery Markets by Commodity

  • Waste Management Equipment

Report: 284 pages, includes tables, charts and graphs.

View the Table of Contents, List of Exhibits, and List of Tables.

 

New Report Details the $55 Billion US Waste Industry

The latest research from Waste Business Journal details the $55 billion US waste management industry which grew by a modest 2 percent in 2011, slightly behind GDP growth. Revenue growth was hampered by sluggish growth in the volume of wastes generated especially industrial and construction wastes which changed little from the year before. However, higher prices paid for recycled commodities including paper, plastic and steel encouraged companies and municipalities to divert a higher volume of these materials.

Components of the Waste Stream
According to Waste Business Journal's Waste Market Overview & Outlook 2012, the total volume of wastes being handled by licensed non-hazardous waste management facilities in the US grew to 621.5 million tons in 2011 up from 610.2 million tons in 2010. This figure includes municipal solid waste (MSW) generation of 429 million tons, construction and demolition debris generation of 117 million tons and industrial and special wastes generation of 76 million tons.

Of the 429 million tons of MSW generated, 141 million tons (33 percent) were recycled in 2011, up from 134 million tons (32 percent) in 2010. The higher recovery rate slowed the growth of waste otherwise destined for landfills which totaled 264 million tons, up less than 1 percent from a year earlier. The remaining 26.4 million tons of waste was burned in waste-to-energy plants.

Pricing Holds Steady
Despite the decline in volumes and pressure from cash strapped municipalities, waste firms have generally managed to hold the line on pricing and win 2-3 percent increases to maintain positive revenue amid slow volume growth. Municipalities have had to follow suit by raising prices as well, especially to cover revenue shortfalls elsewhere in their budgets. The average price to landfill a ton of MSW rose to a national average price of $44.23, up from $43 a year earlier. Prices vary greatly among various regions according to population density, economic activity, regulation and other factors as detailed in the report.

These and other vital industry statistics and analysis are part of the Waste Market Overview & Outlook 2012, which offers a thorough examination of the various segments of the business, the major players, and the evolving nature of the industry, and changing role of the private sector. It includes detailed statistics of waste generation, recovery and disposal volume, pricing and capacity by state and region that include historical statistics back to 1992, and include our projections through 2016.

Industry Segments and Key Players
Waste collection represents the largest segment and is itself a $34 billion business accounting for 61 percent of industry revenues. Transporting and processing waste and recyclables was a $6 billion business in 2011, representing 11 percent of industry revenues. Waste disposal including landfilling ($13 billion) and waste-to-energy ($2.7 billion) comprise 28 percent of industry revenues.

The top two companies, Waste Management and Republic Services accounted for 39 percent of total industry revenue. All of the publicly traded companies together comprised 61 percent of total revenues. All told, the private sector represents 78 percent of the industry while the municipal sector controls the remaining 22 percent. This is a sharp contrast to 1992 when municipalities controlled 35 percent of industry revenue.

Recent mergers including that of Veolia's US waste business by Advanced Disposal, promises a reshaped industry much further along its path of privatization. The companies understand that one way to deal with turbulent economic times amidst rising fuel, labor and equipment costs is to streamline operations and vertically integrate their markets.

Rising costs have focused company managers on disciplined price increases especially now that the industry is more consolidated, more attentive to return on invested capital, more rational about valuing existing landfill capacity and mindful of lessons in the past when pricing was sacrificed.

The volatility of fuel costs implies that surcharges and hedging programs are likely to remain in place. Expect to see continued focus on controlling vehicle maintenance and insurance costs while investing in fleet upgrades and worker safety programs. Additional cash from operations will likely go towards "tuck-in" acquisitions, asset swaps and other vertical integration measures for which companies can reap immediate cost savings.

Relatively low natural gas prices together with a growing infrastructure of fueling facilities is leading companies and municipalities to invest in converting their fleets to compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered vehicles. Other benefits including lower emissions and quieter engines makes the fleets more welcome to the communities they serve.

Waste Conversion and Energy from Waste
The rising price of oil together with higher costs of landfill disposal is raising interest in conversion technologies including traditional sources such as mass-burn and landfill gas-to-energy, as well as more exotic methods such as gasification, plasma arc gasification, hydrolysis, and pyrolysis. Strategic investors from outside the industry as well as those within, including Waste Management are making a number of bets to see which ones will prove economically viable, particularly at scale, and which will be best suited to particular situations. Similarly, there is renewed interest in organics waste diversion, recovery and conversion, particularly given the high Btu value of these wastes which are increasingly prohibited from landfills.

Other Segments and Waste Streams Covered
- Construction and Demolition Debris Generation, Recovery and Disposal
- The growing problem of E-Waste, Legislation, Processors and Solutions
- Food Waste Programs
- Scrap Tires, Recycling and Conversion to Energy
- Waste Industry Equipment, Manufacturers and Segments
And more...

 

LIST OF CONTENTS & EXHIBITS
* Click on sections for more detail.
  •   About Waste Business Journal
    • 0.1  About Waste Business Journal
    • 0.1  About James Thompson, Jr.
  • 1.  HISTORY & BACKGROUND
    • 1.1  Recent Events
      • WASTE GENERATION FALLS WITH ECONOMIC DOWNTURN
      • COMPANIES MANAGE TO RAISE PRICING TO OFFSET DECLINE IN VOLUME
      • RESURGENCE OF INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION
      • CONSOLIDATION WILL HELP COMPANIES MAINTAIN PRICING DISCIPLINE
      • ECONOMIES THROUGH VERTICAL INTEGRATION
      • FEWER LANDFILLS MAKE THEM MORE VALUABLE AND VULNERABLE AT THE SAME TIME
      • COLLAPSING COMMODITY PRICES FOR RECOVERED MATERIALS
      • SUPREME COURT RULES ON FLOW CONTROL WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR MUNICIPALITIES
      • TROUBLE FOR SPSA MAY ILLUSTRATE PERILS OF MUNICIPAL ALLIANCES
    • 1.2  Economic Outlook
      • TABLE 1 US ECONOMIC OUTLOOK
    • 1.3  History
      • HIGHLY FRAGMENTED, LOW TECHNOLOGY, AND LOW COST
      • CHANGES IN REGULATIONS
      • WASTE DISPOSAL CRISIS OF THE LATE 80'S
      • TABLE 2 SUBTITLE D REQUIREMENTS
      • ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INCENTIVE TO INCREASE RECYCLING
      • INCENTIVE TO SHOP FOR LOWER DISPOSAL FEES
      • BARRIERS TO MOBILITY: FLOW CONTROL, IMPORT BANS AND OTHER LEGISLATIVE OBSTACLES
      • WASTE IS INCREASINGLY HAULED FURTHER AWAY FROM THE SOURCE OF ITS GENERATION
      • EFFECT OF REGULATION ON INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS
      • OVERBUILDING AND EXCESS DISPOSAL CAPACITY
      • RISING ROLE OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR
      • RISING MATERIALS RECOVERY RATES
      • PROBLEM OF DEMAND AND CAPACITY FOR RECOVERED MATERIALS
      • REENGINEERING MANUFACTURING TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF RECOVERED MATERIALS
      • MATURING MARKET FOR RECOVERED MATERIALS
  • 2.  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • 2.1  Industry Overview: Size and Segments
      • DEFINING THE MARKET
      • FIGURE 1 HISTORICAL AND PROJECTED GROWTH OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY
      • KEY SEGMENTS
      • FIGURE 2 COMPONENTS OF THE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW) STREAM IN 2007
      • FIGURE 3 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT AND TYPE OF ACTIVITY IN 2011
      • KEY PLAYERS
      • TABLE 3 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT AND TYPE OF ACTIVITY IN 2011
      • FIGURE 4 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT (GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC & PRIVATE COMPANIES) 2011
      • TABLE 4 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT (GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC & PRIVATE COMPANIES) 2011
      • SUPREMACY OF THE PUBLICLY TRADED COMPANIES
      • FIGURE 5 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT (GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC & PRIVATE COMPANIES) 2001
      • TABLE 5 INDUSTRY REVENUES BY PARTICIPANT (GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC & PRIVATE COMPANIES) 2001
      • PRICING DISCIPLINE
      • RISING FUEL, EQUIPMENT, INSURANCE AND LABOR COSTS MAY PROVIDE INCENTIVE TO HOLD P
      • WASTE BY RAIL
      • PERSONNEL
      • M&A ACTIVITY
      • VERTICAL INTEGRATION THROUGH ROLL UPS AND "TUCK-INS"
      • TABLE 6 STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. SOLID WASTE INDUSTRY IN 2011
      • EFFICIENCY THROUGH TECHNOLOGY AND ROUTE OPTIMIZATION
      • FULL SERVICE APPROACH
      • TABLE 7 STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. SOLID WASTE INDUSTRY IN 2001
      • REPACKAGING THEMSELVES AS GREEN COMPANIES
      • TABLE 8 EXISTING AND PROJECTED SOLID WASTE MARKET BY PARTICIPANT AND YEAR
    • 2.2  Industry Overview: Total Generation, Recovery & Disposa
      • MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL TRENDS
      • TABLE 9 SOLID WASTE MARKET VOLUME IN 2011
      • INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION
      • FIGURE 6 TOTAL AND PER CAPITA SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN THE US BY YEAR
      • GROWING NETWORK OF TRANSFER STATIONS
      • SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SEGMENTS
      • FIGURE 7 WASTE GENERATION AND RECOVERY BY YEAR
    • 2.3  Collection Markets
      • WASTE COLLECTION
      • TABLE 10 SOLID WASTE COLLECTION MARKETS, 2002 TO 2011
    • 2.4  Processing Markets
      • TRANSFER AND PROCESSING
      • HELPED BY HIGHER PRICING
      • DIVERSION AND PRODUCT STEWARDSHIP
      • TAKE BACK PROGRAMS
      • FIGURE 8 GROWTH IN THE NUMBER OF US CURBSIDE RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING PROGRAMS BY YEAR
    • 2.5  Disposal Markets
      • DISPOSAL SEGMENT
      • TABLE 11 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL MARKETS, 2002 TO 2011
      • C&D DOWN
    • 2.6  New Disposal Technology
      • BIOREACTORS
    • 2.7  Landfill Development and Operating Costs
      • TABLE 12 TYPICAL LANDFILL OPERATING & MAINTENANCE COSTS
      • DEVELOPMENT COSTS
      • CONSTRUCTION COSTS
      • CLOSURE AND POST CLOSURE COSTS
      • ANNUAL OPERATING EXPENSES
      • OTHER ECONOMIES-OF-SCALE
      • RESOURCE RECOVERY
    • 2.8  Incinerator Operating Costs
      • TABLE 13 TYPICAL WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPERATING & MAINTENANCE COSTS
      • FIGURE 9 LANDFILL VS. WTE OF POST-RECOVERY SOLID WASTE BY YEAR
    • 2.9  Waste Management Market Dynamics and Geographic Distrib
      • FIGURE 10 VOLUME OF WASTE ACCEPTED INTO MSW LANDFILLS BY TYPE OF OWNER
      • FIGURE 11 DECLINING NUMBER OF ACTIVE MSW LANDFILLS BY TYPE OF OWNER
      • FIGURE 12 AVERAGE ANNUAL LANDFILL VOLUME BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 13 AVERAGE ANNUAL LANDFILL VOLUME BY TYPE OF OWNERSHIP AND YEAR
    • 2.10  Movement of Waste and Attempts to Control its Destiny
      • FLOW CONTROL
      • FIGURE 14 INCREASING NUMBER OF TRANSFER STATIONS EACH YEAR (AND BY TYPE OF OWNER)
      • WASTE BY RAIL
      • INTERSTATE WASTE MOVEMENT
      • FIGURE 15 INCREASING MOVEMENT OF WASTE INTERSTATE
    • 2.11  Processing and Disposal Volume by Region
      • FIGURE 16 LANDFILL VOLUME BY REGION IN 2011
      • TABLE 14 LANDFILL VOLUME BY REGION IN 2011
      • FIGURE 17 DESTINATION OF MSW WASTE GENERATED BY REGION
      • FIGURE 18 LANDFILL VOLUME BY REGION AND BY YEAR
      • TABLE 15 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE NORTHEAST IN 2011
      • TABLE 16 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE SOUTHEAST IN 2011
      • TABLE 17 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE MIDWEST IN 2011
      • TABLE 18 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE WEST IN 2011
      • TABLE 19 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE PACIFIC IN 2011
      • TABLE 20 SOLID WASTE GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN THE US IN 2011
  • 3.  COMPETITION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • 3.1  Overview
      • FIGURE 19 MARKET SHARE BY SEGMENT IN 2011
      • FIGURE 20 MARKET SHARE BY SEGMENT IN 1994
      • FIGURE 21 HISTORICAL AND PROJECTED GROWTH OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT INDUSTRY BY PARTICIPANT
      • FIGURE 22 MSW LANDFILL VOLUME BY OWNER IN 2011
      • TABLE 21 MSW LANDFILL VOLUME BY OWNER IN 2011
      • TABLE 22 SHARES OF TOP PUBLIC COMPANIES: 2011
    • 3.2  Top Solid Waste Management Companies
      • LEADING WASTE MANAGEMENT FIRMS
      • TABLE 23 LEADING COMPANIES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • 3.3  Leading Firms in Waste to Energy
      • LARGEST WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMPANIES RANKED BY TOTAL CAPACITY
      • TABLE 24 LARGEST WASTE-TO-ENERGY ENTITIES RANKED BY TOTAL ANNUAL VOLUME IN 2011
      • TABLE 25 WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS RANKED BY PROCESSING TONNAGE IN 2011
    • 3.4  Industry Mergers and Acquisitions
    • 3.5  Municipal Solid Waste Authorities
  • 4.  LANDFILL CAPACITY
    • 4.1  Overview
      • FIGURE 23 REMAINING LANDFILL CAPACITY (SUPPLY) BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 24 REMAINING LANDFILL CAPACITY (SUPPLY) BY TYPE OF OWNER AND YEAR
      • FIGURE 25 REMAINING LANDFILL CAPACITY (SUPPLY) VERSUS LANDFILL VOLUME (DEMAND) BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 26 AVERAGE LANDFILL CAPACITY EXPANSION BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 27 REMAINING MSW LANDFILL CAPACITY BY REGION IN 2011
      • FIGURE 28 REMAINING CAPACITY BY REGION AND YEAR WITH PROJECTIONS THROUGH 2015
      • FIGURE 29 REMAINING MSW LANDFILL CAPACITY BY OWNER ENTITY IN 2011
      • TABLE 26 REMAINING MSW LANDFILL CAPACITY BY OWNER ENTITY IN 2011
  • 5.  PRICING
    • 5.1  Overview
      • TABLE 27 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 28 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 29 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 30 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 31 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • FIGURE 30 LANDFILL PRICING (TIP FEES) FOR MSW BY YEAR
      • TABLE 32 LANDFILL DISPOSAL VOLUMES AND TIPPING FEES FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • FIGURE 31 LANDFILL PRICING (TIP FEES) FOR MSW BY TYPE OF OWNER AND YEAR
      • FIGURE 32 LANDFILL PRICING (TIP FEES) FOR MSW BY REGION IN 2011
      • FIGURE 33 LANDFILL PRICING (TIP FEES) FOR MSW BY TYPE OF FACILITY AND YEAR
      • FIGURE 34 LANDFILL PRICING (TIP FEES) FOR MSW BY REGION AND YEAR
  • 6.  MATERIALS RECOVERY
    • 6.1  Market Review
      • TABLE 33 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE NORTHEAST FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 34 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE SOUTHEAST FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 35 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE MIDWEST FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 36 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE WEST FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • TABLE 37 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE PACIFIC FROM 2001 TO 2011
    • 6.2  Resource Recovery Market
      • PUBLIC STILL HIGHLY SUPPORTIVE OF RECYCLING
      • TABLE 38 MATERIALS RECOVERY RATE IN THE US FROM 2001 TO 2011
      • RECYCLING RATES HIGHER IN LINE WITH POPULATION DENSITY AND DISPOSAL COSTS
      • ENERGY SAVINGS FROM RECYCLING
      • SLIGHT DECLINE IN CURBSIDE RECYCLING PROGRAMS
      • BOLSTERED BY COMPOSTING
      • ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF RECYCLING
      • ECONOMIES-OF-SCALE FOR LARGE RECYCLING COMPANIES
      • RECORD HIGH COMMODITY PRICING
      • MARKET STABILITY FROM INCREASING GLOBAL DEMAND
      • MARKET VOLATILITY AND VULNERABILITY TO GLOBAL PRESSURES
      • RISING COST OF TRANSPORTATION
      • EVOLVING TO BUYERS MARKET (MILLS) FROM SUPPLIERS MARKET
      • DECLINING SUPPLY OF OLD NEWSPRINT
      • LARGE CORPORATIONS ARE DEPLOYING SUSTAINABILITY MEASURES
      • STATE LEGISLATURES PUSH MORE RECYCLING MEASURES INCLUDING LANDFILL BANS
      • SINGLE-STREAM RECYCLING TO ADDRESS RECYCLING GOALS AND HIGHER TRANSPORTATION COST
      • STILL ROOM TO GROW
      • BEHAVIORAL CHALLENGE
      • THE EU AS A MODEL
      • DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY MARKETS SUPPORTS THE BUSINESS
    • 6.3  Paper Recycling
      • TABLE 39 WASTE PAPER - EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC, 1994-2011
    • 6.4  Plastic Recycling
      • TABLE 40 PLASTIC - EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC, 1994-2011
    • 6.5  Aluminum Recycling
      • TABLE 41 ALUMINUM CANS- EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC, 1994-2011
      • TABLE 42 ALUMINUM SCRAP - EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC, 1994-2011
    • 6.6  Steel Recycling
      • TABLE 43 STEEL/FERROUS SCRAP - DOMESTIC AND EXPORTS 1994-2011
      • FIGURE 35 OVERALL STEEL RECYCLING RATE
    • 6.7  Glass Recycling
    • 6.8  Largest Recycling Companies
      • TABLE 44 LARGEST RECYCLING COMPANIES IN THE US
  • 7.  OTHER SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SEGMENTS: SPECIAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES
    • 7.1  Scrap Tire Recycling
      • TABLE 45 GENERATION OF SCRAP TIRES IN THE US IN 2005
      • TABLE 46 GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL OF USED TIRES BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 36 FATE OF RECOVERED TIRES BY YEAR
      • TABLE 47 FATE OF RECOVERED TIRES BY YEAR
    • 7.2  Construction & Demolition Debris Disposal and Recycling
      • SOME DEFINITIONS:
      • TABLE 48 CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION DEBRIS (C&D) GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL IN 2011
      • RELEVANT REGULATIONS
      • COMPONENTS OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS WASTES
      • TABLE 49 AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS
      • TABLE 50 BUILDING RELATED C&D DEBRIS GENERATION
      • TABLE 51 GENERATION OF C&D WASTE FROM BUILDINGS (IN 1998)
      • TABLE 52 BUILDING RELATED C&D DEBRIS GENERATION
      • TABLE 53 CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION DEBRIS (C&D) GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL BY YEAR IN THE US (2001-2011)
      • TABLE 54 CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION DEBRIS (C&D) GENERATION, RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL BY YEAR PROJECTED THROUGH 2015
      • C&D PRICING FOLLOWS A SIMILAR PATTERN TO THAT OF MSW
      • FIGURE 37 WEIGHTED AVERAGE TIPPING FEES CHARGED FOR C&D BY TYPE OF FACILITY AND YEAR
      • MSW PRICING HISTORICALLY REFLECTS RATIO OF DEMAND FOR DISPOSAL TO AVAILABLE CAPAC
      • AVAILABLE DISPOSAL (SUPPLY) IS REPRESENTED BY PROXIMITY TO LANDFILLS AND WASTE-TO
      • TABLE 55 GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) OF THE ENTIRE US BY YEAR (WITH PROJECTIONS)
      • TABLE 56 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE NORTHEAST
      • TABLE 57 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE SOUTHEAST
      • TABLE 58 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE MIDWEST
      • TABLE 59 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE WEST
      • TABLE 60 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE PACIFIC
      • TABLE 61 C&D DISPOSAL VOLUME AND PRICING BY STATE IN THE US
    • 7.3  Food Wastes
      • DEFINITION
      • FOOD WASTE RECYCLING
      • FIGURE 38 FOOD WASTE AMONG OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE MUNICIPAL WASTE STREAM
      • TABLE 62 YEARLY VOLUME OF FOOD WASTE ENTERING THE WASTE STREAM
      • FIGURE 39 YEARLY VOLUME OF FOOD WASTE ENTERING THE WASTE STREAM
      • FIGURE 40 ORIGIN OF FOOD WASTES BY SOURCE
      • TABLE 63 YEARLY FOOD CONSUMPTION BY FOOD TYPE
      • UNIQUE CHALLENGES
      • STATES ARE LOOKING TO FOOD WASTE AS NEXT GREAT OPPORTUNITY TO MEET RECYCLING GOAL
    • 7.4  Yard Waste and Composting
      • SOURCE SEPARATION OF ORGANICS ADVANCES SLOWLY
      • FIGURE 41 VOLUME OF ORGANIC WASTES COMPOSTED BY YEAR
      • DIVERT, DON'T DUMP
      • ANAEROBIC DIGESTION EMERGING
      • COMPOSTABLE ORGANICS OUT OF LANDFILLS BY 2012; COOL 2012
    • 7.5  Wood Wastes
      • TABLE 64 ELECTRICITY NET GENERATION FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY BY ENERGY USE SECTOR AND ENERGY SOURCE, 2002-2006
    • 7.6  E-Wastes
      • FIGURE 42 ELECTRONICS WASTE AS A COMPONENT OF ALL WASTES GENERATED
      • NEED FOR RECOVERY
      • EUROPEAN MODEL
      • TAKE-BACK PROGRAMS
      • MANUFACTURERS APPROACH
      • FIRMS ENGAGED IN RECOVERY
      • LACK OF REGULATION DETERS INVESTMENT
      • LACK OF REGULATION AND CERTIFICATION
      • EXPORTING E-WASTE
      • RESPONSIBLE MANAGEMENT
      • SCREWDRIVER OPERATIONS
      • SHOULD E-WASTE RECYCLING COUNT TOWARDS STATE GOALS?
    • 7.7  Landfill Gas
      • FIGURE 43 LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS BY YEAR
      • FIGURE 44 LANDFILL GAS-TO-ENERGY PROJECT CUMULATIVE CAPACITY BY YEAR
    • 7.8  Biomass
    • 7.9  Waste-to-Ethanol
    • 7.10  Autoclaving
    • 7.11  Gasification and Pyrolysis
    • 7.12  Plasma-arc
      • EXISTING FACILITIES
      • PLANNED FACILITIES
    • 7.13  Lamp Recycling
  • 8.  STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS
  • 9.  WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT
    • 9.1  Waste Management Equipment Market
      • FIGURE 45 U.S. WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY: 2011
      • TABLE 65 U.S. WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY: 2011
      • TABLE 66 U.S. WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY: 2001-2011
      • TABLE 67 WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT MARKET BY MAJOR EQUIPMENT CATEGORY
      • TABLE 68 WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT BREAKDOWN
      • FIGURE 46 GROWTH IN WASTE MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT 1988-2011
      • RISING STEEL PRICES AND OTHER PROBLEMS
    • 9.2  Waste Management Equipment Company Profiles
      • COMPACTION AMERICA
      • HEIL ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES
      • MORBARK INC
      • REHRIG PACIFIC COMPANY
      • LEACH COMPANY
      • WASTEQUIP
    • 9.3  Leading Companies in Waste Management Equipment
      • TABLE 69 COMPANIES THAT MANUFACTURE WASTE CONTAINERS
      • TABLE 70 COMPANIES THAT MANUFACTURE LINERS
      • TABLE 71 MANUFACTURERS OF MOBILE COLLECTION & TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS
      • TABLE 72 WASTE EQUIPMENT COMPANIES

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